Τετάρτη, 5 Μαρτίου 2014

The Autonomous Republic of Crimea

The Autonomous Republic of Crimea 
Territory: 26.100 sq. km, . Extent: from the west to the east - 360 km, from the north to the south – 180 km.
Borders with:  Kherson oblast (Ukraine)
neighboring regions: Zaporozhye oblast, Krasnodar krai of the Russian Federation.

Eκτός από την στρατηγική θέση που ελέγχει την Μαύρη Θάλασα, το Λιμάνι της Σεβαστούπολης και τις στρατιωτικές υποδομές που παραδόθηκαν στην νέα Κυβέρνηση η Κριμαία διαθέτει:
  1. ΑΟΖ  με μεγάλες ποσότητες φυσικού αερίου σε αβαθή νερά (20μ)
  2. Ανεπτυγμένη βιομηχανική παραγωγή, χημική βιομηχανία, παραγωγή ενέργειας και Ναυπηγία
  3. Ανεπτυγμένη αγροτικη παραγωγή , και κτηνοτροφία
  4. Τουριστικές εγκαταστάσεις και περιοχές ιαματικου τουρισμου
  5. Το σημαντικότερο: λόγω των αβαθών νερών που περιβάλεται προσφέρει οικονομικη διέλευση του αγωγου South Stream , σαν εναλλακτική όδευση !
Για τους παραπάνω λόγους η ΕΕ ρίχνει μαύρο κλάμα > εδώ 
The most southern point is Sarych Cape; the most western point is Priboiyniy Cape; the most eastern point is Fonar Cape.Th e most important sea ports are Yevpatoria, Yalta, Feodosia and Kerch.



Climate. Crimea occupies position between moderate and subtropical geographical belts that favors to the mild climate of the peninsula and large amount of sunshine hours (2180 – 2470 hours per year).

The Crimean peninsula relief is represented by three unequal parts: plain Crimea, Kerch peninsula and mountainous Crimea that consists of the Main range of Crimean Mountains with the Southern Coast of Crimea and the Inner and Outer submontane ranges. The Crimean peninsula is washed by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov.

Large rivers are Salhir, Indol, Buyuk-Karasu, Chernaya, Belbek, Kacha, Alma, Balganah. The longest river is Salhir River (220 km), the most full-flowing one is Bel’bek (1500 l/s). There are more than 50 salty lakes in Crimea; the largest ones are Sasyk and Kunduk (205 km) lakes.

The representative body of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea is the Verkhovna Rada (eng.- Supreme Council) of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.

The executive body of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea is the Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.

The Autonomous Republic of Crimea has its own symbols: Coat of arms, Flag and Anthem.

According to the data as of January 01, 2013 the population of Crimea makes 1 million 965.2 thousand people, economically active population makes 970.300 people or less than 50% of the total number of population.

Administratively the territory of the republic consists of 14 regions and 16 cities, 11 of them are of republican subordination and 3 are intercity districts of Simferopol. There are 243 village councils, 1021 settlements, including 72 city ones and 949 village ones.

The capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea is city of Simferopol.

There are 11 cities of republican subordination: Alushta, Armyansk, Dzhankoy, Yevpatoria, Kerch, Krasnoperekopsk, Saki, Simferopol, Sudak, Feodosia, and Yalta.

There are 14 regions. They are: Bakhchisaray, Belogorsk, Dzhankoy, Kirovskoye, Krasnogvardeyskoye, Lenino, Krasnoperekopsk, Nizhnegorsk, Pervomaiskoye, Razdolnoye, Saki, Simferopol, Sovetskoye, Chernomorskoye regions.

In accordance with the data of the All-Ukrainian population census, about 130 ethnic groups live in the republic and the largest are Russians, Ukrainians and Crimean Tatars.

The production Infrastructure of   Republic of Crimea in Photos















Industry is the leading branch of the economy of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.
Its contributions into creation of gross added value makes up to 16%. About 25% of the region fixed assets are constituted by industry. More than 2 thousand big, medium sized and small enterprises with more than 100 thousand employees are concentrated in the industrial production of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. More than 65% of total production volume of industry of Crimea is provided by processing industry, about 14% - by mining industry, about 20% - by enterprises that produce and distribute electricity, gas, steam and conditioned air. The industrial production of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea is represented by such braches as mechanical engineering, including agricultural machinery, shipbuilding, chemical, mining, light and food industry. The territorial distribution of the industrial facilities in the republic is unequal. This is caused by differences in resource supply. The main Crimean industrial enterprises are located in Simferopol, Armyansk, Krasnoperekopsk, Kerch, Feodosiya, Yevpatoria, Bakhchisaray and Krasnogvardeysk regions.

Industry
The development strategy of Crimea puts special emphasis on innovative and investment development of the industrial economy branch of the republic. The future of the Crimean industry is connected with the creation of science intensive sustainable productions providing minimum impact on the environment.

Chemical industry
The largest chemical enterprises that have become monopolists in Ukraine and CIS countries are situated in Crimea. Their products are competitive in European and world markets. They are the main export items of the republic. An important factor of successful productive activity is the local raw material base and considerable labor resources.

The leading enterprises of chemical industry are PJSC "Crimea TITAN", OJSC "Crimea Soda Plant", OJSC "Brom", Simferopol Training and Production Corporation UTOS "Krymplast".

PJSC "Crimea TITAN" (www.titan-export.com) is the leading chemical producer in Crimea that is well-known outside the borders of Crimea and Ukraine. The enterprise has a reputation of a reliable partner; its economic activity was awarded with 6 international prizes. The enterprise produces titanium dioxide, red iron-oxide pigment, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and other chemical products.

OJSC "Crimea Soda Plant" (www.cs.ua) is a large producer of sodium carbonate (categories A and Б) that has been working for more than 30 years. The company supplies soda, detergents, salt and building lime for distribution in external and internal markets.

OJSC "Brom" (www.perekopbromine.com) is the only producer of bromine and its compounds in Ukraine that uses brine of Sivash Lake as natural raw material.

Engineering
The Crimean engineering industry specializes in production of electrical and electronic equipment, radio and television devices, communications facilities, optical devices and navigators. The industry is presented by more than 50 enterprises, the major of which are JSC "Electromachine-building plant Firm "SELMA", JSC "Zavod "Phiolent", JSC "Simferopolselmash" Plant.

JSC "Electromachine-building plant Firm "SElMA" (www.selma.ua) is the leading producer of arc welding machines in Ukraine and CIS. The products of the company are designed applying up-to-date industrial technologies and using parts of established world brands. The company has adopted a quality control system that meets requirements of the international ISO standards (ISO 9001, TUV- Germany).

JSC "Simferopolselmash" Plant (www.selmash.strace.net) is one of the leaders in production of cutting spare parts for agricultural machinery not only in Crimea and Ukraine, but also in CIS.

There are powerful mechanical engineering enterprises functioning on the territory of Crimea that considerably contribute to the budget due to currency inflow coming from export activities. They are JSC "Zavod "Phiolent", JSC "Pneumatics, Feodosia State Optical Plant. These economic agents are the most active in innovations; their products are extremely science intensive.

JSC "Zavod "Phiolent" (www.phiolent.com) is an up-to-date highly organized company, one of the leading producers of electric tools and equipment in Ukraine and CIS.

The quality control system that conforms to requirements of ISO 9001:2000 international standards is introduced in the company, and the BVQI certificate is received. The company has its own design-engineering unit for development of electric tools. The products of JSC "Zavod "Phiolent" are notable for their high quality, reliability and modern design.

JSC "Pneumatics (www.pneumo.com.ua) is the enterprise that has been producing pneumatic equipment for various fields of economy over 30 years. The supply plan includes a hundred of pneumatic equipment modifications (pneumatic cylinders and distributors, control and regulating equipment, electropneumatic transformers, etc.) to meet various customer requirements

The shipbuilding products of the republic are well-known far beyond the borders of Ukraine. These are oil tankers, frigates, dynamically supported crafts, transport vessels, etc. The companies of the industry also render ship repairing services. About a half of all hydrofoil ships of the world left the Crimean building berths. Shipbuilding companies are strategically important for the development of the peninsula. The major among them are JSC "Shipyard Zaliv", JSC "Feodosia Shipbuilding Company "MORE", State enterprise "Stekloplastik".

JSC "Shipyard Zaliv" is the leading producer of medium range tankers. The company performs diverse works in ship building and ship service, produces equipment for dockyards, energy carriers, oxygen, acetylene, etc.

JSC "Feodosia Shipbuilding Company "MORE" (www.morye.crimea.ua) is a powerful producer of high-speed vessels (hydrofoils, hovercrafts, vessels with air-cavities, etc.), yacht and motor boats with aluminum-magnesium alloy hulls.

State enterprise "Stekloplastik" (www.boat.h1.ru) has considerable production potential and is a large specialized enterprise that possesses the technologies for production of constructions of complex polymer composites. The products of the enterprise are lifeboats and motor boats of diverse functions, pleasure boats, sea kayaks, etc.

Mining industry
SJSC "Chernomorneftegaz" is a part of NJSC "Naftogaz" of Ukraine and specializes in oil and gas exploration and mining in water areas of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, storage and transportation of natural gas. "Chernomorneftegaz" develops 3-gas condensate (Golitsynskoye, Shtormovoye and Fontanovskoye), 6 gas (Arkhangel'skoye. Strelkovoye, Dzhankoyskoye, Zadornenskoye, Vostochno-Kazantipskoye, Severo-Bulganakskoye) and one oil (Semenovskoye) deposits on the shelf of the Black and Azov seas and in the land part of Crimea.

There are 17 fields on the balance of SJSC "Chernomorneftegaz": 11 of them are gas, 4 are gas-condensate and 2 are oil fields.

Now "Chernomorneftegas" is going through a radical modernization of the production, which will bring the company to the next level of development of the shelf of the Black and Azov Seas. Floating jackup rigs of the fifth generation will enable deeper drilling (up to 9000 m), works on greater depths (up to 120 m) and also increase the rate of penetration in several times. The new vessels-suppliers and tugs will provide better service to work on the shelf.

Thanks to the company's modernization gas production by 2015 will increase by three times compared to 2011, while the level of satisfying the own needs of Crimea will be 150%.

In 2012, "Chernomorneftegas" extracted 1.174 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 62800 tons of gas condensate and 8.9 million tons of oil.

At present in the Crimea 37 GRS, trunk gas pipelines, with length more than 1000 km, marine pipelines, with length more than 300 km constructed under the Institute’s project are in operation.


Gas pipelines for Sevastopol and “Djankoy-Feodosia-Kerch”, diameter -500 mm, length -268 km are pt into commission. Three GDS, seven walker’s houses, three pipeline walker’s houses, maintenance point are included in pipeline for Feodossia, ARP for Kerch and other structures. In 2005 Institute’s specialists developed peninsula’s gasification scheme that was approved by Council of Ministers of Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Continuation of gas fields construction on the shelf of the Black and Azov seas, projects of which are developed by LLC “Institute “Shelf” – it’s strengthening of rAlteegional gas system that will supply gas not only to Crimea but will provide an opportunity of gas supplying to the south of Ukraine.

There are big deposits of oil and gas off the Crimean coast- the Azov and Black sea deposits
Offshore Rig Search Results




Shelton Petroleum has through its subsidiaries assembled a strong Ukrainian portfolio consisting of a producing onshore oil project in Chernigov Region next to Poltava and offshore gas projects in the Black and Azov Seas. These projects strategically balance low-cost development and lower-risk exploitation targets with carefully assessed, higher-risk, higher-yield exploration opportunities.

With the help of renewable energy sources, 285.7 million kWh of electricity was received in Crimea over nine months of 2013.
The press service of the Cabinet informs about this.
"For the first nine months of 2013, with the help of renewable energy sources, Crimea obtained 285.7 million kWh of electricity, which corresponds to 30% of the total energy on the peninsula. According to experts, from January to September this year, solar electric plants produced 251.2 million kWh, wind power plants - 34.6 million kWh, covering together 6.6% of total energy consumption of Crimea," a statement reads.
In early November, the total installed capacity of "green" energy objects in Crimea was fixed at the level of 295.5 MW, including solar power - 227.3 MW and wind farms - 68.2 MW.
Experts believe that the region has a huge potential for alternative energy, primarily wind and solar. But construction of alternative power plants requires huge investments. For example, in order to build additional capacity of 1 MW, it is necessary to build high voltage networks over the entire region, to build new sub-stations, and this means billions in investment programs. By the way, a loan of more than a billion dollars received by Ukraine from China has been issued just for development of alternative energy, the experts remind.
There are good reasons for such an optimistic forecast. Today, the pace of alternative energy development in Ukraine beats all records. In 2013, the total installed capacity of solar power plants Ukrainian (SPP) increased by 51.4 %. And for three years, the total capacity of solar power plants in Ukraine has risen more than 100 times. As for the wind power plants (WPP), Ukraine can be an example for other countries. According to experts, Ukraine is the second largest in the world by the fastest growing of the wind energy industry.
Very rapid growth in the alternative energy sector is due to a noticeable influx of private investments in this sector. Their sum is currently more than USD 20 billion. But by 2015, the amount of investments in the "green" energy sector of Ukraine, according to experts, could reach USD 5 billion.

Starting from April, the State joint-stock company “Chornomornaftogaz” has pumped in more than 120 million cubic meters of natural gas to the Glibovske underground storage facility. These works are carried out in the framework of preparation for the autumn and winter seasons of 2013-2014. In 2013 “Chornomornaftogaz” expects to bring the active volume of the natural gas at the Glibovske storage facility to more than million cubic meters.
Based on the results of 5 months of 2013, the growth of the natural gas production at the Black Sea shelf has amounted to 35.5 % against the similar period of 2012. The development of the Odessa gas deposit in the Black Sea is still in progress.
More than 1 billion cubic meters of gas were supplied to consumers from the Crimean gas-transport system over 5 months of the 2012-2013 heating season. The volume of natural gas, produced by “Chornomornaftogaz”, amounted to 82% of this 1 billion.
In 2013 “Chornomornaftogaz” intends to raise gas production by 40-57 % - up to 1.65-1.85 billion cubic meters, to ensure the supply of its own gas to the Crimean consumers by 82-100%.


Shallow waters for Southstream?
It’s worth remembering, that former President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych suggested the Crimean option of South Stream to Russia at the Yalta European Strategy VIII Conference  on September 17, 2011 “This project is a lot cheaper than the proposed one, the cost of which is now estimated at about $ 25 billion. And the route that we offer now will cost 80% less” . This is true if there is stability in Crimea, that is to use the shallow waters around Crimea.
In autumn 2014,  construction of the offshore section of the pipeline is scheduled to begin. And it was planed to be held in the most deep water bottom zone of the Black Sea, where depths are 1900-2200 meters. However, the combined route, if Crimea is independent from Kiev, the project may change to be held on the shallower coastal shelf, and not on the bottom zone of the sea.

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