Τετάρτη, 18 Δεκεμβρίου 2013

Dalal Mughrabi

Dalal Mughrabi

Dalal Mughrabi (Arabicدلال المغربي‎, Dalāl al-Muɣrabīca. 1959 – 11 March 1978) was a Palestinian militant who was a member of the Fatah faction of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and participated in the 1978Coastal Road massacre in Israel. The attack resulted in the death of 38 Israeli civilians, including 13 children.[1]Mughrabi and nine or ten other militants were also killed in the course of the operation.[2][3] She has been hailed as a martyr and a national hero among Palestinians,[4][5] while in Israel she is seen as a terrorist.
Mughrabi was born and raised in the Palestinian refugee camp of Sabra in BeirutLebanon.[6] Her father's family home prior to the 1948 Palestine war was in JaffaPalestine. Her mother was Lebanese.
Originally educated as a nurse, Dalal Mughrabi decided to devote her life to politics when the Lebanese Civil Warbroke out in 1975. She joined Fatah and began working within the organization's communications service. She took part in the fighting against the Syrian army in the mountains southeast of Beirut when Syrian forces entered Lebanon in 1976 to assist the Phalangists and their allies. In 1977 she completed a three-month training course attaining her the rank of lieutenant. She was offered a post in Italy by Fatah as political officer working at the PLO office, but she declined choosing instead a military career.[7]


Coastal Road massacre[edit]

Front end remains of the hijacked bus
Mughrabi was part of a group of a dozen or so Palestinian and Lebanese militants who landed on March 11, 1978, on the coastal plain near Tel Aviv.[3][6] Mughrabi allegedly led the group, though reports differ.[8] The timing was aimed at scuttling peace talks between Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat,[9] and the intent to "kill as many Israelis as possible", according to one source,[9] though other sources state the goal was to attack the ministry of defence in Tel Aviv[3] or to "reach the Knesset and demand the release of Palestinian prisoners."[10]
An early casualty was an American photographer named Gail Rubin,[11] The militants opened fire at passing traffic and hijacked a taxi, killing its occupants.[9] They seized a bus and headed to Tel Aviv,[8][9] and then hijacked another bus, moving the hostages (now numbering 71) to the first bus.[9]
Israeli forces stopped the bus, and a shooting battle ensued before it exploded.[3][9][11] During the shootout Mughrabi allegedly raised the Palestinian flag and declared the establishment of a Palestinian state.[3] Israel says the bus exploded after Mughrabi blew it up with a grenade, while Palestinians say it was struck by fire from an Israeli helicopter gunship.[3][9] A total of 38 Israelis, including 13 children, were killed and 72 were wounded; Mughrabi and nine other militants died as well.[2][12] According to Hugh Macleod, a British journalist, there are reports of images of Ehud Barak, then an officer in the Sayeret Matkal anti-terrorism unit and possibly a leader in the rescue operation, firing shots into Mughrabi's dead body as she lay on the road.

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